CPT Code – Description
0301T Destruction/reduction of malignant breast tumor with externally applied focused microwave, including interstitial placement of disposable catheter with combined temperature monitoring probe and microwave focusing sensocatheter under ultrasound thermotherapy guidance
19499 Unlisted procedure, breast
32998 Ablation therapy for reduction or eradication of 1 or more pulmonary tumor(s) including pleura or chest wall when involved by tumor extension, percutaneous, radiofrequency, unilateral
32999 Unlisted procedure, lungs and pleura
47382 Ablation, 1 or more liver tumor(s), percutaneous, radiofrequency
47399 Unlisted procedure, liver
49999 Unlisted procedure, abdomen, peritoneum and omentum
50592 Ablation, 1 or more renal tumor(s), percutaneous, unilateral, radiofrequency
53899 Unlisted procedure, urinary system (for renal tumors)
60699 Unlisted procedure, endocrine system (for adrenal or thyroid tumors)
76940 Ultrasound guidance for, and monitoring of, parenchymal tissue ablation
Microwave Tumor Ablation
Ablation refers to destroying tumors without removing them. Microwave ablation is a method of trying to treat tumors using microwave energy. A small probe is placed into the tumor. The probe sends out microwave energy. The microwaves cause enough heat to kill tumor cells. Medical studies show that while this technique can destroy tumors at a particular location, cancer recurrence at other sites is common, depending on the stage and type of cancer. More studies are needed to show which patients would benefit the most from this treatment, as well as explaining why this treatment should be used instead of other proven methods. For these reasons, microwave ablation of tumors is considered investigational (unproven).
Note: The Introduction section is for your general knowledge and is not to be taken as policy coverage criteria. The rest of the policy uses specific words and concepts familiar to medical professionals. It is intended for providers. A provider can be a person, such as a doctor, nurse, psychologist, or dentist. A provider also can be a place where medical care is given, like a hospital, clinic, or lab. This policy informs them about when a service may be covered.
Policy Coverage Criteria Service Investigational Microwave ablation (MWA) Microwave ablation (MWA) of primary and metastatic tumors is considered investigational. Coding
According to an American Medical Association publication (Clinical Examples in Radiology, 2012, 8, [3}), “microwave is part of the radiofrequency spectrum, and simply uses a different part of the radiofrequency spectrum to develop heat energy to destroy abnormal tissue.” Therefore, AMA recommends that microwave ablation should be reported using the CPT codes for radiofrequency ablation as noted in the coding table below.
This policy does not address MWA for the treatment of splenomegaly or ulcers or as a surgical coagulation tool. Evidence Review
Microwave ablation (MWA) is a technique that is used to destroy tumors and soft tissue. It generates microwave energy to create thermal coagulation and localized tissue necrosis, and has been used to treat tumors not amendable to resection. It has also been used to treat patients ineligible for surgery due to age, comorbidities, or poor general health. MWA may be performed as an open procedure, laparoscopically, percutaneously, or thoracoscopically under image guidance (eg, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) with sedation, or local or general anesthesia. This technique is also referred to as microwave coagulation therapy.
MWA is a technique that uses microwave energy to induce an ultra-high speed, 915 MHz or 2.450 MHz (2.45 GHz), alternating electric field, which causes water molecules to rotate and create heat. This results in thermal coagulation and localized tissue necrosis. In MWA, a single microwave antenna or multiple antennas connected to a generator are inserted directly into the tumor or tissue to be ablated; energy from the antennas generates friction and heat. The local heat coagulates the tissue adjacent to the probe, resulting in a small, 2- to 3 -cm elliptical area (5 x 3 cm) of tissue ablation. In tumors greater than 2 cm in diameter, 2 to 3 antennas may be used simultaneously to increase the targeted area of MWA and shorten operative time. Multiple antennas may also be used simultaneously to ablate multiple tumors. Tissue ablation occurs quickly, within 1 minute after a pulse of energy, and multiple pulses may be delivered within a treatment session, depending on tumor size. The cells killed by MWA are typically not removed but are gradually replaced by fibrosis and scar tissue. If there is local recurrence, it occurs at the margins. Treatment may be repeated as needed. MWA may be used to:
1. Control local tumor growth and prevent recurrence
2. Palliate symptoms
3. Extend survival duration
MWA is similar to radiofrequency (RFA) and cryosurgical ablation. However, MWA has potential advantages over RFA and cryosurgical ablation. In MWA, the heating process is active, which produces higher temperatures than the passive heating of RFA and should allow for more complete thermal ablation in less time. The higher temperatures reached with MWA (>100°C) can overcome the “heat sink” effect in which tissue cooling occurs from nearby blood flow in large vessels, potentially resulting in incomplete tumor ablation. MWA does not rely on the conduction of electricity for heating and, therefore, does not flow electrical current through patients and does not require grounding pads, because there is no risk of skin burns. Additionally, MWA does not produce electric noise, which allows ultrasound guidance during the procedure without interference, unlike RFA. Finally, MWA can take less time than RFA, because multiple antennas can be used simultaneously.
Complications from MWA are usually considered mild and may include pain and fever. Other potential complications associated with MWA include those caused by heat damage to normal tissue adjacent to the tumor (eg, intestinal damage during MWA of the kidney or liver), structural damage along the probe track (eg, pneumothorax as a consequence of procedures on the lung), liver enzyme elevation, liver abscess, ascites, pleural effusion, diaphragm injury or secondary tumors if cells seed during probe removal. MWA should be avoided in pregnant women because potential risks to the patient and/or fetus have not been established. It should also be avoided in patients with implanted electronic devices such as implantable pacemakers that may be adversely affected by microwave power output.
MWA was first used percutaneously in 1986 as an adjunct to liver biopsy. Since then, MWA has been used to ablate tumors and other tissues in order to treat many conditions. These have included hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver, renal cell carcinoma, renal hamartoma, adrenal malignant carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma, secondary splenomegaly and hypersplenism, abdominal tumors, and other tumors not amenable to resection. Well-established local or systemic treatment alternatives are available for each of these malignancies. The potential advantages of MWA for these cancers include improved local control and other advantages common to any minimally invasive procedure (eg, preserving normal organ tissue, decreasing morbidity, shortening length of hospitalization). MWA also has been investigated as primary and/or palliative treatment for unresectable hepatic tumors, and also as a bridge to liver transplantation. In the latter setting, MWA is being assessed to determine whether it can reduce the incidence of tumor progression while awaiting liver transplantation and thus maintain a patient’s candidacy for the transplant.
Summary of Evidence
For individuals who have an unresectable primary or metastatic tumor (eg, breast, hepatic [primary or metastatic], pulmonary, renal) who receive MWA, the evidence includes case series, observational studies, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic reviews. Relevant outcomes are overall survival, disease-specific survival, symptoms, quality of life, and treatment-related mortality and morbidity. Available studies have shown that MWA results in a wide range of complete tissue ablation (50%-100%) depending on tumor size, with complete ablation common and nearing 100% with smaller tumors (eg, less than or equal to 3 cm). Tumor recurrence rates at ablated sites are very low. However, tumor recurrence at nonablated sites is common and may correlate with disease state (eg, in hepatocellular carcinoma). Intraoperative and postoperative minor and major complications are low, especially when tumors are smaller and accessible. Patient selection criteria and rationale for using MWA over other established techniques (eg, surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation) are needed. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes. Ongoing and Unpublished Clinical Trials